Skip to main content

Multitenancy in Node.js

The concept of Multitenancy in Node.js

Implementing multitenancy in a Node.js application involves designing your codebase and database schema to support multiple tenants, each with its data and configurations. There are several approaches you can take, depending on your requirements and the complexity of your application.

Multitenancy in Node.js - Tutorial provided by AppSeed.

Here's a basic overview of how you can implement multitenancy in Node.js:

Shared Database Schema

  • In this approach, all tenants share the same database schema, but data is segregated using a tenant identifier. This identifier is included in every relevant database query to ensure data separation.
  • You can use a middleware or a function to determine the current tenant based on request data (e.g., subdomain, URL parameter, or authentication token).

Isolated Database Schemas

  • Each tenant has its own isolated database schema. This approach ensures complete data isolation but can be more resource-intensive.
  • You can dynamically switch between database connections based on the current tenant during request processing.

Here's a simplified example of implementing multitenancy in a Node.js application using the shared database schema approach:

const express = require('express');
const app = express();
const mongoose = require('mongoose');

// Connect to the MongoDB database
mongoose.connect('mongodb://localhost/myapp', {
useNewUrlParser: true,
useUnifiedTopology: true,

// Middleware to set the current tenant based on request data
app.use((req, res, next) => {
// Determine the current tenant based on request data (e.g., subdomain or URL parameter)
const tenant = req.query.tenant || 'default'; // Use a default tenant if none is specified
req.currentTenant = tenant;

// Define a schema for your data model
const itemSchema = new mongoose.Schema({
name: String,
tenant: String, // Include a field to store the tenant identifier

// Create a model based on the schema
const Item = mongoose.model('Item', itemSchema);

// Example route to fetch items for the current tenant
app.get('/items', async (req, res) => {
try {
// Query the database, filtering by the current tenant
const items = await Item.find({ tenant: req.currentTenant });
} catch (error) {
res.status(500).json({ error: 'Internal Server Error' });

app.listen(3000, () => {
console.log('Server is running on port 3000');

In this example, we use Express.js with Mongoose (an Object-Document Mapper for MongoDB) to create a simple multitenant application.

The req.currentTenant variable is set in the middleware based on a query parameter, and it's used to filter records in the /items route.

✅ In Summary

Please note that this is a basic example, and in a real-world application, you would need to handle database connection pooling, authentication, and security more rigorously.

Additionally, the choice between a shared schema or isolated schema approach depends on your specific use case and scalability requirements.

✅ Resources